Is male circumcision good for infants? Is it an effective means of preventing the transmission of HIV? The American Academy of Pediatrics’ technical report has been criticized in many countries. Several arguments for and against circumcision are presented here. There are a variety of complications associated with circumcision. This article aims to clarify this debate. Read on to learn more. The following article explores the arguments for and against male circumcision and its cost effectiveness.
Arguments for circumcision
Some parents choose not to have their boys circumcised for cultural or religious reasons. Others refuse due to alternative philosophical positions. And there are those who believe that circumcision has no benefits and only harms. But it is not wrong to choose circumcision for your child. The procedure is safe and involves only a short period of pain. But if you don’t want your son to have the procedure, there are many reasons to wait until he is old enough to decide for himself.
Circumcision reduces the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases like HIV. It also prevents the development of phimosis, a condition in which pulling back the foreskin is impossible. However, circumcision has risks such as bleeding, infection, and damage to the penis or urethra. Moreover, the removal of the foreskin can tighten the foreskin and cause urination problems.
Some experts believe that the benefits outweigh the risks. For example, circumcision can reduce the risk of foreskin-mediated diseases like psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, or urticaria. Many parents choose circumcision for their child because it affords them varying degrees of protection. But others are opposed. In fact, many parents choose circumcision for their child because it reduces the cost of medical circumcision, which often involves expensive general anesthesia.
Cost-effectiveness of circumcision for HIV prevention
The effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention has been examined in two ways. One method measures the cost per quality-adjusted life-year saved in U.S. males, while the other estimates the cost per quality-adjusted life-year saved in black and Hispanic men. Both approaches have limited efficacy. In other words, the cost of circumcision for HIV prevention may be less effective than previously thought.
The cost-effectiveness of circumcision for HIV prevention was examined in a new PLOS study on the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention. Researchers found circumcision to be effective in preventing HIV by reducing the risk of infection by about 40%. When men in low-income countries were circumcised, their HIV-infection rate decreased by 74%. However, circumcision has a moderate protective effect and reduced lifetime medical costs, which is why many countries have been reluctant to implement it.
The effectiveness of circumcision for HIV prevention was evaluated in different subgroups of men, and researchers found that men of younger ages were best protected by it. VMMC was also most cost-effective in preventing HIV in black men, compared to older men. In a 2016 WHO consultation, researchers reviewed multiple modelling studies and determined that younger men are most likely to receive circumcisions. This approach saves money because fewer circumcisions are necessary to avert one HIV infection, which lowers costs and increases savings.
Complications of circumcision
Although urethral stenosis is a relatively uncommon complication, it does occur in some cases. In these cases, the opening to the urethra narrows and the penis may be trapped under the circumcision site. In these cases, surgical correction is required. Although this is rare, it is still a cause for concern. Here are some complications to watch for after circumcision.
Some complications are related to infection and bleeding. Some may be a result of injudicious use of an electrocautery device or an improper placement of the Mogen clamp, which is designed to admit only the foreskin into the area of compression. Although this complication is relatively rare, it can result in amputation of the glans. In most cases, it is possible to reattach the glans, provided proper treatment is sought at the earliest opportunity.
One rare complication of circumcision is infection. Although yellowish scabs are often mistaken for infection, they are just part of the healing process. Infection is especially problematic for infants, as their immune systems are compromised and infections can turn into more serious problems. Some circumcision sites have been the site of infection in meningitis, necrotizing fasciitis, sepsis, and gangrene.